Benzo(a)pyrene parallel measurements in PM1 and PM2.5 in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea) in the heating and non-heating seasons
Anita Lewandowska , Marta Staniszewska , Agnieszka Witkowska , Magdalena Machuta , Lucyna Falkowska
AbstractParallel measurements of PM1 and PM2.5 aerosols were conducted in the urbanized coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea. The main aim of the research was to assess and determine annual, seasonal (heating and non-heating), and daily concentration variability of benzo(a)pyrene in aerosols, these being the most dangerous constituents to human health. The average annual concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was equal to 2.6 ng·m−3 in PM1 and 4.6 ng·m−3 in PM2.5, and both values were several times higher than the level of 1 ng·m−3 which was set out in the CAFE Directive. High mean daily concentrations of B(a)P persisted for 50 and 65% of the study period in PM1 and PM2.5, respectively. In order to determine the sources of B(a)P in both aerosol fractions, organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon concentrations were examined. The highest concentrations of all carbon species were reported during the heating season under local or regional land advection and at low air temperatures. The origin of pollutants was the same and was primarily related to the combustion of fossil fuels in the communal-utility sector. During the non-heating period, the role of transportation, both land and marine, increased and may have been significant in creating higher concentrations of carbon compounds in PM1 and PM2.5. Regardless of the size of the aerosol fractions, B(a)P loads introduced into the Baltic coastal zone were several times higher during the heating period compared to the non-heating season.
|Journal series||Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, (A 30 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.55|
|Keywords in English||benzo(a)pyrene, parallel measurements, PM1, PM2.5, heating and non-heating season, Baltic Sea coast|
|ASJC Classification||; ; ;|
|License||Other; published final; ; with publication|
|Score|| = 30.0, 04-04-2019, ArticleFromJournal|
= 30.0, 04-04-2019, ArticleFromJournal
|Publication indicators||= 0; : 2016 = 1.048; : 2017 = 2.8 (2) - 2017=2.989 (5)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.