Benzo(a)pyrene parallel measurements in PM1 and PM2.5 in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea) in the heating and non-heating seasons

Anita Lewandowska , Marta Staniszewska , Agnieszka Witkowska , Magdalena Machuta , Lucyna Falkowska

Abstract

Parallel measurements of PM1 and PM2.5 aerosols were conducted in the urbanized coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea. The main aim of the research was to assess and determine annual, seasonal (heating and non-heating), and daily concentration variability of benzo(a)pyrene in aerosols, these being the most dangerous constituents to human health. The average annual concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was equal to 2.6 ng·m−3 in PM1 and 4.6 ng·m−3 in PM2.5, and both values were several times higher than the level of 1 ng·m−3 which was set out in the CAFE Directive. High mean daily concentrations of B(a)P persisted for 50 and 65% of the study period in PM1 and PM2.5, respectively. In order to determine the sources of B(a)P in both aerosol fractions, organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon concentrations were examined. The highest concentrations of all carbon species were reported during the heating season under local or regional land advection and at low air temperatures. The origin of pollutants was the same and was primarily related to the combustion of fossil fuels in the communal-utility sector. During the non-heating period, the role of transportation, both land and marine, increased and may have been significant in creating higher concentrations of carbon compounds in PM1 and PM2.5. Regardless of the size of the aerosol fractions, B(a)P loads introduced into the Baltic coastal zone were several times higher during the heating period compared to the non-heating season.
Author Anita Lewandowska (FOG / IO / DMChEP)
Anita Lewandowska,,
- Division of Marine Chemistry and Environmental Protection
, Marta Staniszewska (FOG / IO / DMChEP)
Marta Staniszewska,,
- Division of Marine Chemistry and Environmental Protection
, Agnieszka Witkowska (FOG / IO / DMChEP)
Agnieszka Witkowska,,
- Division of Marine Chemistry and Environmental Protection
, Magdalena Machuta (FOG / IO / DMChEP)
Magdalena Machuta,,
- Division of Marine Chemistry and Environmental Protection
, Lucyna Falkowska (FOG / IO / DMChEP)
Lucyna Falkowska,,
- Division of Marine Chemistry and Environmental Protection
Journal seriesEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, (A 30 pkt)
Issue year2018
Vol25
No20
Pages19458-19469
Publication size in sheets0.55
Keywords in Englishbenzo(a)pyrene, parallel measurements, PM1, PM2.5, heating and non-heating season, Baltic Sea coast
ASJC Classification2307 Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis; 2310 Pollution; 2304 Environmental Chemistry; 2700 General Medicine
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11356-018-2089-9
URL https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11356-018-2089-9.pdf
Languageen angielski
LicenseOther; published final; Uznanie Autorstwa (CC-BY); with publication
Score (nominal)30
ScoreMinisterial score = 30.0, 04-04-2019, ArticleFromJournal
Ministerial score (2013-2016) = 30.0, 04-04-2019, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 1.048; WoS Impact Factor: 2017 = 2.8 (2) - 2017=2.989 (5)
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