A bittersweet welcome: attitudes of Polish ultra-fans toward female fans entering football stadiums

Dominik Antonowicz , Radosław Kossakowski , Honorata Jakubowska


The number of female supporters following football clubs—referred to as the ‘feminisation’ of sports fandom—has been steadily increasing across Europe. It has been driven by both the emancipation of women and the commercialisation of sports. The paper addresses the process of feminisation club football in Poland. It compares the attitudes of ultras-fans of Polish metropolitan football clubs (Legia Warszawa, Lech Poznań, Lechia Gdańsk) to those from smaller clubs in regards to female fandom. Based on empirical evidence (survey, N = 872) it reveals that that the overwhelming majority of Polish ultra-fans welcome female fans unless it interferes in traditional football culture nor undermines the privileged positions of male ultra-fans. This study also illuminates that there are no grounds upon which to believe that the ultra-fans of the three Polish metropolitan football clubs are more open, inclusive, and sensitive to female fandom than the ultra-fans of periphery clubs.
Publication typeIn press (online first, early view)
Author Dominik Antonowicz
Dominik Antonowicz,,
, Radosław Kossakowski (FSS / IPSJ / DSEL)
Radosław Kossakowski,,
- Division of the Sociology of Everyday Life
, Honorata Jakubowska
Honorata Jakubowska,,
Journal seriesSport in Society, ISSN 1743-0437, e-ISSN 1743-0445, (N/A 100 pkt)
Issue year2020
Noonline first
Publication size in sheets0.3
Keywords in Englishfemale fandom, ultras, football culture, modern football, football
ASJC Classification3316 Cultural Studies
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)100
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 100.0, 10-04-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 0.589; WoS Impact Factor: 2017 = 0.667 (2)
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