Amber inclusions from New Zealand
Alexander Schmidt , Uwe Kaulfuss , Jennifer M. Bannister , Viktor Baranov , Christina Beimforde , Natalie Bleile , Art Borkent , Ariane Busch , John G. Conran , Michael S. Engel , Mark Harvey , Elizabeth M. Kennedy , Peter H. Kerr , Elina Kettunen , Anna Philie Kiecksee , Franziska Lengeling , Jon K. Lindqvist , Mark Maraun , Dallas C. Mildenhall , Vincent Perrichot , Jouko Rikkinen , Eva-Maria Sadowski , Leyla J. Seyfullah , Frauke Stebner , Jacek Szwedo , Philipp Ulbrich , Daphne E. Lee
AbstractTerrestrial ecosystems of the long-isolated former Gondwanan landmass of NewZealand are hotspots ofmodern global biodiversity, based on the level of endemism and distinctiveness of the biota. However, little is known of the evolutionary history of the rarely preserved but diverse, distinctive, fragile, mainly soft-bodied organisms such as arthropods and fungi that comprise 95% of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Our discovery of fossils preserved in Oligocene/Miocene amber of araucarian origin reveals a diverse invertebrate and fungal biota and complex ecological networks. These fossils comprise 10 orders and approximately 20 families of terrestrial arthropods and include representatives of Pseudoscorpiones, Acari, Araneae, Collembola, Hemiptera, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera, together with nematodes, mold fungi and araucarian wood. Ecologically the fossils encompass predators such as spiders with web remains, soil and barkmites, detritivores, parasites, fungivores and decomposers, fungi that grew on solidified resin flows, as well as predatory fungi. This study reports the first major amber deposit with an abundance of biological inclusions from the Southern Hemisphere and the only Cenozoic one of verified araucarian origin. These fossils expand the global record and evolutionary history of many arthropod and fungal groups, providing insights into mid-Cenozoic araucarian forest ecosystems and resolving controversial issues around the antecedents of the modern New Zealand terrestrial biota.
|Journal series||Gondwana Research, ISSN 1342-937X, (A 50 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.55|
|Keywords in English||amber, Arachnida, fungi, Hexapoda, Southern Hemisphere|
|Score||= 50.0, 28-01-2020, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||= 5; : 2018 = 2.401; : 2018 = 6.478 (2) - 2018=7.655 (5)|
|Citation count*||12 (2020-03-29)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.