Executive dysfunction in medical conditions

Michał Harciarek , Aleksandra Wójtowicz

Abstract

Due to the advances in molecular and genetic research, the last three decades have been associated with a substantial progress in understanding the relationship between chronic nonneurological somatic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, thyroid disease, or rheumatoid arthritis) and the function of the central nervous system. As a result, it has been demonstrated that many of these somatic diseases may also affect neuronal networks that subserve attention/executive processes. The aim of this chapter was to characterize executive/attention disorders in individuals with medical/somatic disease, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, human immunodeficiency virus, liver disease, thyroid disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Overall, it has been shown that in most of these chronic primary nonneurological conditions frontal networks (e.g., frontobasal gangliathalamic and frontotemporal networks) that mediate executive functions are particularly sensitive to the metabolic and endocrine disease-related abnormalities. Additionally, the effects of the disease-specific treatment methods and the impact of some of the comorbid conditions on cognition have been discussed.
Author Michał Harciarek ZPKiN
Michał Harciarek,,
- Division of Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology
, Aleksandra Wójtowicz IPsych
Aleksandra Wójtowicz,,
- Institute of Psychology
Pages525-550
Publication size in sheets1.25
Book Goldberg Elkhonon (eds.): Executive functions in health and disease, 2017, Academic Press, ISBN 978-0-12-803676-1, [978-0-12-803705-8], 611 p.
Keywords in Englishattention, cognition, frontal-subcortical networks, kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension, endocrine disease, liver disease, HiV
DOIDOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-803676-1.00021-0
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)5
ScoreMinisterial score = 5.0, 26-02-2018, BookChapterNotSeriesMainLanguages
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