A warrior society: data from 30 countries show that Belief in a Zero-Sum Game is related to military expenditure and low civil liberties

Joanna Różycka-Tran , Paweł Jurek , Michał Olech , Jarosław P. Piotrowski , Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska


The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between a perceived antagonistic view of social relations (as a struggle for limited resources), measured by the Belief in a Zero-Sum Game (BZSG) Scale, national military expenditure, and civil liberties. We used multi-level modeling to analyze data on 5,520 participants from 30 countries, testing the hypothesis that a country’s level of militarization and civil liberties would be associated with its people’s belief in a zero-sum game. We hypothesized that BZSG is more typical of countries that try to gain more resources or defend their interests and thus have high military expenditure but low civil liberties. The results confirmed the stated hypothesis and showed that a country’s high military expenditure and low level of civil liberties correlates positively with citizens’ BZSG. The use of multi-level modeling to account for within- and across-country variation is a main contribution of the study. In conclusion, the reported triad of individual beliefs, military expenditure, and civil liberties seems to be beneficial in linking individual-level data with national-level indices that have major importance for the wellbeing of the world.
Author Joanna Różycka-Tran (FSS / IPsych / DSP)
Joanna Różycka-Tran,,
- Division of Social Psychology
, Paweł Jurek (FSS / IPsych / DSP)
Paweł Jurek,,
- Division of Social Psychology
, Michał Olech
Michał Olech,,
, Jarosław P. Piotrowski
Jarosław P. Piotrowski,,
, Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska
Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska,,
Journal seriesFrontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, (N/A 70 pkt)
Issue year2019
Publication size in sheets0.5
Article number2645
Keywords in EnglishBelief in a Zero-Sum Game Scale, military expenditure, democracy, civil liberties, multilevel modeling (MLM)
ASJC Classification3200 General Psychology
URL https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02645/full
Languageen angielski
LicenseJournal (articles only); published final; Uznanie Autorstwa (CC-BY); with publication
Score (nominal)70
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 70.0, 02-04-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 1.03; WoS Impact Factor: 2017 = 2.089 (2) - 2017=2.749 (5)
Citation count*1 (2020-05-29)
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
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