Cytostatic drug removal using electrochemical oxidation with BDD electrode: degradation pathway and toxicity
Ewa Maria Siedlecka , Aleksandra Ofiarska , Agnieszka Fiszka-Borzyszkowska , Anna Białk-Bielińska , Piotr Stepnowski , Aleksandra Pieczyńska
AbstractIn the presented study, electrochemical oxidation of five anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil (5-FU), ifosfamide (IF), cyclophosphamide (CF), methotrexate (MTX), imatinib (IMB)) using boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode was investigated. In the first step the operating parameters of electrolysis were optimized. Studies have demonstrated a significant influence of applying current density, temperature, pH of solution and initial concentration of 5-FU on the process efficiency. A comparison of the decomposition rate of all the tested drugs showed a decrease in the pseudo-first order rate constants in the following order: k(IMB) > k(MTX) > k(CF)zk(IF) > k(5-FU). Mineralization current efficiency (MCE) was determined for all the drugs based on the removal amount of total organic carbon (TOC) and their values decreased in the same order as values of drug degradation rate k. Based on the identified degradation products, electrochemical oxidation pathways of the decomposed drugs were proposed. In the case of CF, IF and 5-FU the degradation process occurred mainly through ketonization, hydroxylation and dehalogenation, while MTX and IMB were decomposed by attack of hydroxyl radicals on benzyl position in parent compounds. An important part of the research was the evaluation of eco-toxicity of electrochemically treated drug solutions against Lemna minor. Toxicity of initial 5-FU and MTX solutions towards L. minor were observed but after electrochemical treatment its toxicity decreased. The opposite trend was observed for CF and IF. In this case no significant toxicity was observed for the initial solutions of these drugs, while after electrochemical treatment an increase in growth inhibition of L. minor was found.
|Journal series||Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, (A 45 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.5|
|Keywords in English||anticancer drug, electrochemical oxidation, degradation pathway, eco-toxicity|
|Score|| = 45.0, ArticleFromJournal|
= 45.0, ArticleFromJournal
|Publication indicators||= 0; = 0; : 2017 = 7.051 (2) - 2017=7.621 (5)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.