Determination of twenty pharmaceutical contaminants in soil using ultrasound-assisted extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection
Jolanta Kumirska , Paulina Łukaszewicz , Magda Caban , Natalia Migowska , Alina Plenis , Anna Białk-Bielińska , Małgorzata Czerwicka , Fei Qi , Piotr Stepnowski
AbstractIn this paper, an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of twenty pharmaceuticals (eight non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, five oestrogenic hormones, two antiepileptic drugs, two bblockers, and three antidepressants) in soils was developed. The optimal method included ultrasoundassisted extraction, a clean-up step on a silica gel column, derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) in pyridine and ethyl acetate (2:1:1, v/v/ v) for 30 min at 60°C, and determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry working in the selected ion monitoring mode. This affords good resolution, high sensitivity and reproducibility, and freedom from interferences even from complex matrices such as soils. The method detection limits ranged from 0.3 to 1.7 ng g-1, the intra-day precision represented as RSDs ranged from 1.1 to 10.0%, and the intra-day accuracy from 81.3 to 119.7%. The absolute recoveries of the target compounds were above 80%, except for valproic acid and diethylstilbestrol. The developed method was successfully applied in the analysis of the target compounds in soils collected in Poland. Among the 20 pharmaceuticals, 12 compounds were detected at least once in the soils. The determination of antiepileptic drugs, b-blockers, and antidepressants was also performed for the first time.
|Journal series||Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, (A 35 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.5|
|Keywords in English||Analysis of pharmaceuticals in soil, pharmaceuticals in the environment, pharmaceuticals in soil, soil analysis, soil pollution|
|ASJC Classification||; ;|
|Score||= 35.0, 24-07-2019, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||: 2016 = 1.606; : 2017 = 4.427 (2) - 2017=4.551 (5)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.