Simultaneous determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and natural estrogens in the mussels Mytilus edulis trossulus

Daniel Wolecki , Magda Caban , Ksenia Pazdro , Ewa Mulkiewicz , Piotr Stepnowski , Jolanta Kumirska


In this study, an ASE (Accelerated Solvent extraction)-SPE (Solid Phase Extraction)-GC/MS(SIM) method for the simultaneous determination of five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs: ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), naproxen (NAP) and ketoprofen (KET)) and three natural estrogens (estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3)) in mussels was proposed, which is simple, cheap and easy for use in environmental laboratories. For the first time, the sorbents: PSA (Primary Secondary Amine) and FLORISIL®, placed directly inside the extraction cells, were used for the improvement of the ASE procedure for the isolation of these pollutants from mussel samples. The application of FLORISIL® especially allowed the purification of the extract to increase recovery, without the loss of analytes, or prolongation of the extraction time. The proposed ASE-SPE-GC/MS(SIM) method was validated (the method detection limit values were in the range of 1 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) for IBU to 7 ng/g d.w. for E1; the measurement intermediate precision was between 0.24% and 7.85%; the mean recovery was in the range of 80–118%) and used for the determination of NSAIDs and estrogenic hormones in whole tissue of the mussels Mytilus edulis trossulus collected from the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea). IBU, NAP, DIC and E1 were determined in these samples; however, the pharmaceuticals were found only in smaller (with a length of 2–3 cm) individuals. The observed differences in the concentrations of CEC in smaller and older mussel organisms were fully discussed. Summarizing, this method could be used for monitoring these CEC in such organisms in order to expand our knowledge of their influence on the water ecosystem, however, in such investigations smaller mussel organisms should be used.
Author Daniel Wolecki (FCh / DEA / LChAD)
Daniel Wolecki,,
- Laboratory of Chemical Analytics and Diagnostics
, Magda Caban (FCh / DEA / PAiMŚ)
Magda Caban,,
- Pracownia Analityki i Monitoringu Środowiska
, Ksenia Pazdro - [Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences]
Ksenia Pazdro,,
- Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences
, Ewa Mulkiewicz (FCh / DEA / LChAD)
Ewa Mulkiewicz,,
- Laboratory of Chemical Analytics and Diagnostics
, Piotr Stepnowski (FCh / DEA / LChER)
Piotr Stepnowski,,
- Laboratory of Chemical Environmental Risks
, Jolanta Kumirska (FCh / DEA / LChAD)
Jolanta Kumirska,,
- Laboratory of Chemical Analytics and Diagnostics
Journal seriesTalanta, ISSN 0039-9140, (N/A 100 pkt)
Issue year2019
Publication size in sheets0.5
Keywords in EnglishMethod development, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, natural estrogens, mussels, Mytilus edulis trossulus, Baltic Sea
ASJC Classification1600 General Chemistry
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)100
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 100.0, 27-03-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 1; Scopus Citations = 3; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 1.27; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 4.916 (2) - 2018=4.322 (5)
Citation count*5 (2020-03-23)
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
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