Simultaneous determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and natural estrogens in the mussels Mytilus edulis trossulus
Daniel Wolecki , Magda Caban , Ksenia Pazdro , Ewa Mulkiewicz , Piotr Stepnowski , Jolanta Kumirska
AbstractIn this study, an ASE (Accelerated Solvent extraction)-SPE (Solid Phase Extraction)-GC/MS(SIM) method for the simultaneous determination of five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs: ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), naproxen (NAP) and ketoprofen (KET)) and three natural estrogens (estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3)) in mussels was proposed, which is simple, cheap and easy for use in environmental laboratories. For the first time, the sorbents: PSA (Primary Secondary Amine) and FLORISIL®, placed directly inside the extraction cells, were used for the improvement of the ASE procedure for the isolation of these pollutants from mussel samples. The application of FLORISIL® especially allowed the purification of the extract to increase recovery, without the loss of analytes, or prolongation of the extraction time. The proposed ASE-SPE-GC/MS(SIM) method was validated (the method detection limit values were in the range of 1 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) for IBU to 7 ng/g d.w. for E1; the measurement intermediate precision was between 0.24% and 7.85%; the mean recovery was in the range of 80–118%) and used for the determination of NSAIDs and estrogenic hormones in whole tissue of the mussels Mytilus edulis trossulus collected from the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea). IBU, NAP, DIC and E1 were determined in these samples; however, the pharmaceuticals were found only in smaller (with a length of 2–3 cm) individuals. The observed differences in the concentrations of CEC in smaller and older mussel organisms were fully discussed. Summarizing, this method could be used for monitoring these CEC in such organisms in order to expand our knowledge of their influence on the water ecosystem, however, in such investigations smaller mussel organisms should be used.
|Journal series||Talanta, ISSN 0039-9140, (N/A 100 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.5|
|Keywords in English||Method development, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, natural estrogens, mussels, Mytilus edulis trossulus, Baltic Sea|
|Score||= 100.0, 10-12-2019, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||= 1; = 1; : 2016 = 1.27; : 2018 = 4.916 (2) - 2018=4.322 (5)|
|Citation count*||1 (2019-12-09)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.