Membrane partitioning of ionic liquid cations, anions and ion pairs - estimating the bioconcentration potential of organic ions
Joanna Dołżonek , Chul-woong Cho , Piotr Stepnowski , Marta Markiewicz , Jorg Thöming , Stefan Stolte
AbstractRecent efforts have been directed towards better understanding the persistency and toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) in the context of the “benign-by-design” approach, but the assessment of their bioaccumulation potential remains neglected. This paper reports the experimental membrane partitioning of IL cations (imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, phosphonium), anions ([C(CN)3]−, [B(CN)4]−, [FSO2)2N]−, [(C2F5)3PF3]−, [(CF3SO2)2N]−) and their combinations as a measure for estimating the bioconcentration factor (BCF). Both cations and anions can have a strong affinity for phosphatidylcholine bilayers, which is mainly driven by the hydrophobicity of the ions. This affinity is often reflected in the ecotoxicological impact. Our data revealed that the bioconcentration potential of IL cations and anions is much higher than expected from octanol-water-partitioning based estimations that have recently been presented. For some ILs, the membrane-water partition coefficient reached levels corresponding to BCFs that might become relevant in terms of the “B” (bioaccumulation potential) classification under REACH. However, this preliminary estimation need to be confirmed by in vivo bioconcentration studies.
|Other language title versions|
|Journal series||Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, (A 40 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.55|
|Keywords in English||bioaccumulation, lipid-water partitioning, PBT assessment, PFAS, QSAR|
|ASJC Classification||; ; ;|
|Score||= 40.0, 24-07-2019, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||= 4; = 3; : 2016 = 1.729; : 2017 = 4.358 (2) - 2017=5.291 (5)|
|Citation count*||7 (2019-08-24)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.