Hyperspectral imaging of sedimentary bacterial pigments: a 1700-year history of meromixis from varved Lake Jaczno, northeast Poland
Christoph Butz , Martin Grosjean , Tomasz Goslar , Wojciech Tylmann
AbstractHypoxia in freshwater systems is currently spreading globally and putting water quality, biodiversity and other ecosystem services at risk. Such adverse effects are of particular concern in permanently stratified meromictic lakes. Yet little is known about when and how meromixis and hypoxia became established (or vanished) prior to anthropogenic impacts, or how human activities such as deforestation, erosion and nutrient cycling affected the mixing regimes of lakes. We used calibrated hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data in the visible and near infrared range from a fresh, varved sediment core taken in Lake Jaczno, NE Poland, to map sedimentary pigments at very high resolution (sub-varve scale) over the past 1700 years. HSI-inferred bacteriopheophytin a (bphe a, produced by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria) serves as a proxy for meromixis, whereas HSI-inferred green pigments (chlorophyll a and diagenetic products) can be used as estimators of aquatic productivity. Meromixis was established and vanished long before significant human disturbance in the catchment was observed in the late eleventh century AD. Under pre-anthropogenic conditions, however, meromixis was interrupted frequently, and the lake mixing regime flickered between dimixis and meromixis. During two periods with intense deforestation and soil erosion in the catchment, characterised by sedimentary facies rich in clay and charcoal (AD 1070–1255 and AD 1670–1710), the lake was mostly dimictic and better oxygenated than in periods with relative stability and a presumably closed forest around the lake, i.e. without human disturbances. After ca. AD 1960, meromixis became established quasi-permanently as a result of eutrophication. The persistent meromixis of the last ~60 years is unusual with respect to the record of the last 1700 years.
|Other language title versions|
|Journal series||Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, (A 30 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.75|
|Keywords in English||bacteriopheophytin a, chlorophyll a, Holocene, Anthropocene, 14C AMS gas ion source|
|Score|| = 30.0, 20-12-2017, ArticleFromJournal|
= 35.0, 20-12-2017, ArticleFromJournal
|Publication indicators||: 2016 = 2.017 (2) - 2016=2.309 (5)|
|Citation count*||6 (2018-12-18)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.