Multiple factors correlating with wing malformations in the population of Parnassius apollo (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) restituted from a low number of individuals: a mini review

Karolina Pierzynowska , Marta Agnieszka Skowron Volponi , Grzegorz Węgrzyn


The Apollo butterfly, Parnassius apollo (Linnaeus), was common in Europe over 100 years ago, but currently it is considered as near threatened. Different conservation programs have promoted the persistence of this species; however, it is still endangered. An example of such programs was the action devoted to reestablish the Apollo butterfly popu- lation in Pieniny National Park (Poland) from only 20–30 individuals which had survived till the last decade of the 20th century. This reintroduction has been successful; how- ever, unexpected developmental problems appeared. Butterflies with deformed or reduced wings became frequent in the population living in the natural habitat, and particularly among those reared under seminatural conditions (in the same environment, but fenced by a net). Until recently, reasons for these malformations remained unknown. However, reports published during last months indicated that there are genetic, biochemical, and microbiological factors contributing to this phenomenon. In the malformed individuals, lesions in the wingless gene and dysfunctions of laccase 1 and 2 were found to be signifi- cantly more frequent than in normal insects. A large fraction of butterflies with deformed or reduced wings was devoid of the prokaryotic symbiont Wolbachia, which was present in most normal individuals. Moreover, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Pfeiffer) Smith and Thal, and Serratia sp., bacteria pathogenic to insects, were detected in the biological ma- terial from both normal and malformed butterflies from this population. These findings are summarized and discussed in this review, in the light of conservation of insects and restitution of their populations from a low number of individuals.
Author Karolina Pierzynowska (FB/DMoB)
Karolina Pierzynowska,,
- Department of Molecular Biology
, Marta Agnieszka Skowron Volponi (FB/DMoB)
Marta Agnieszka Skowron Volponi,,
- Department of Molecular Biology
, Grzegorz Węgrzyn (FB/DMoB)
Grzegorz Węgrzyn,,
- Department of Molecular Biology
Journal seriesInsect Science, ISSN 1672-9609, (N/A 70 pkt)
Issue year2019
Publication size in sheets0.50
Keywords in Englishapollo butterfly, laccases, malformed wings, population reconstitution, wingless gene, Wolbachia
ASJC Classification1109 Insect Science; 1300 General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology; 1102 Agronomy and Crop Science; 1105 Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)70
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 70.0, 26-06-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators Scopus Citations = 0.000; WoS Citations = 0.000; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 0.888; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 2.710 (2) - 2018=2.546 (5)
Citation count*1 (2020-06-29)
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
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