Improvement of attention, executive functions, and processing speed in elderly women as a result of involvement in the Nordic Walking training program and vitamin D supplementation

Mariusz Lipowski , Tamara Walczak-Kozłowska , Małgorzata Lipowska , Jakub Kortas , Jędrzej Antosiewicz , Giancarlo Falcioni , Ewa Ziemann


Research indicates that life satisfaction declines with age, and cognitive abilities are gradually reduced—mainly attentional functioning and cognitive processing speed. Therefore, scientists seek to find protective factors and test possible intervention programs; moderately intensive physical activity stands out as particularly promising. In this context, we evaluated the influence of Nordic Walking training supported by vitamin D supplementation (as this nutrient is especially deficient in older people in Poland) on the cognitive and psychological functioning of elderly women. A total of 52 healthy elderly women took part in a Nordic Walking training program complemented by vitamin D supplementation. Cognitive functioning was assessed with the Trail Making Test and the D2 Test of Attention. Quality of life and severity of depressive symptoms were measured with the Short Form Health Survey and the Beck Depression Inventory 2. Significant improvements in all aspects of cognitive functioning was observed (p = 0.01–0.47). The study also showed a decrease in depressive symptoms (p = 0.026). Physical activity and adequate levels of vitamin D can be the key factors in maintaining self-reliance in old age. Involvement in Nordic Walking training, supported by vitamin D supplementation, can strengthen the cognitive functioning of older people—reflected in higher attentional capabilities, better executive functions, and improved cognitive processing speed.
Author Mariusz Lipowski
Mariusz Lipowski,,
, Tamara Walczak-Kozłowska (FSS / IPsych)
Tamara Walczak-Kozłowska,,
- Institute of Psychology
, Małgorzata Lipowska (FSS / IPsych / DIPGP)
Małgorzata Lipowska,,
- Division of Intercultural Psychology and Gender Psychology
, Jakub Kortas
Jakub Kortas,,
, Jędrzej Antosiewicz
Jędrzej Antosiewicz,,
, Giancarlo Falcioni
Giancarlo Falcioni,,
, Ewa Ziemann
Ewa Ziemann,,
Journal seriesNutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, (N/A 140 pkt)
Issue year2019
Publication size in sheets0.8
Article number1311
Keywords in Englishaging, Nordic Walking, nutrition, supplement, performance, cognitive functions
ASJC Classification1106 Food Science
Languageen angielski
LicenseJournal (articles only); published final; Uznanie Autorstwa (CC-BY); with publication
Score (nominal)140
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 140.0, 10-03-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 1.392; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 4.171 (2) - 2018=4.813 (5)
Citation count*
Share Share

Get link to the record

* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
Are you sure?