Polish ultras in the post-socialist transformation
Radosław Kossakowski , Tomasz Szlendak , Dominik Antonowicz
AbstractThe world of radical football fans across Europe is dominated by anti-system groups. While their sympathies in the west of the continent are mostly leftist, the ultras in the east tend to display right-wing attitudes. Poland makes a particularly interesting case in point, as the most intensive and emotional ideological criticism of the processes of ‘transformation’ and ‘modernisation’ is to be observed at the stadiums. As a result of historical developments, opposition against the system in the country can only be expressed using Catholic–patriotic symbolism, which in the case of collective actions of radical football supporters has produced sociocultural and aesthetic effects not to be found anywhere else in Europe.
|Journal series||Sport in Society, ISSN 1743-0437, e-ISSN 1743-0445, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.75|
|Score||= 5.0, 28-01-2020, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||= 3.000; : 2018 = 0.589; : 2017 = 0.667 (2)|
|Citation count*||13 (2020-07-09)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.