Toxicity and biodegradability of dicationic ionic liquids

Stephanie Steudte , Steve Bemowsky , Maria Mahrova , Ulrike Bottin-Weber , Emilia Tojo-Suarez , Piotr Stepnowski , Stefan Stolte


Ionic liquids (ILs) formed by multivalent cations are generally of higher thermal and electrochemical stability, which makes them attractive for use in high-temperature applications. Whereas the influence of structural elements on the physicochemical properties of dicationic ILs (DILs) is well established, such systematic investigations on their ecotoxicity and biodegradablility are still lacking. The present study investigates the influence of the dicationic structural elements on these characteristics and addresses the question whether already established structure–activity relationships of common ILs can be applied to DILs. Therefore, a set of 10 DILs with different linkage chain length, terminal alkyl side chain length, linkage chain polarity and head groups were synthesized and studied in several biodegradation and toxicity tests. The results showed that the acute toxicity was in many cases below the levels observed for monocationic ILs. However, none of the DILs could be degraded within the performed biodegradation experiments. Hence, DILs are a potential less toxic alternative to monocationic ILs, but further work on their design is necessary.
Author Stephanie Steudte (FCh / DEA / LChER)
Stephanie Steudte,,
- Laboratory of Chemical Environmental Risks
, Steve Bemowsky - [University of Bremen]
Steve Bemowsky,,
- University of Bremen
, Maria Mahrova - [Universidad de Vigo]
Maria Mahrova,,
- Universidad de Vigo
, Ulrike Bottin-Weber - [University of Bremen]
Ulrike Bottin-Weber,,
- University of Bremen
, Emilia Tojo-Suarez - [Universidad de Vigo]
Emilia Tojo-Suarez,,
- Universidad de Vigo
, Piotr Stepnowski (FCh / DEA / LChER)
Piotr Stepnowski,,
- Laboratory of Chemical Environmental Risks
, Stefan Stolte (FCh / DEA / LChER)
Stefan Stolte,,
- Laboratory of Chemical Environmental Risks
Journal seriesRSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, (A 30 pkt)
Issue year2014
Publication size in sheets0.5
Languageen angielski
LicenseJournal (articles only); published final; Uznanie Autorstwa - Użycie Niekomercyjne (CC-BY-NC); with publication
Score (nominal)35
ScoreMinisterial score = 35.0, 11-12-2018, ArticleFromJournal
Ministerial score (2013-2016) = 35.0, 11-12-2018, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators Scopus Citations = 33; WoS Citations = 32; WoS Impact Factor: 2014 = 3.84 (2) - 2014=3.907 (5)
Citation count*40 (2019-01-22)
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.