Leaching behavior of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in the soil environment
Jerzy Wojsławski , Anna Białk-Bielińska , Piotr Stepnowski , Joanna Dołżonek
AbstractPharmaceuticals constitute a significant group of emerging pollutants (EPs). The use of pharmaceuticals in animal breeding causes them to reach the soil environment in excrement and fertilizers. Depending on their chemical properties, pharmaceuticals can be sorbed to the soil or be washed out with rainfall and eventually be entered into groundwater. This paper evaluates the mobility of tramadol (TRA) and carbamazepine (CBZ), and two transformation products, O-desmethyltramadol (O-DMTRA) and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine (10-OH-CBZ) in soils. Both pharmaceuticals are applied in human and animal treatment, which makes them enter the environment in native and metabolized form in high doses. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the OECD 106 procedure (batch tests) and DIN 19528:2009-01 procedure (percolation column test). The adsorption coefficients (Kd) for TRA, CBZ, O-DMTRA and 10-OH-CBZ were, respectively, 1.41 ± 0.10, 1.87 ± 0.06, 0.90 ± 0.03 and 0.37 ± 0.07 for sandy soil RS04, and 18.09 ± 0.78, 2.56 ± 0.05, 10.89 ± 0.17 and 0.56 ± 0.38 L kg−1 for loamy soil RS06. The percolation column test was carried out for sandy soil RS04. The results obtained for TRA and O-DMTRA under static conditions indicated a high mobility of these compounds in soil, whereas the column leaching experiment showed that these compounds bind strongly to soil particles. A correlation between static and dynamic tests was observed in the case of CBZ and 10-OH-CBZ. These compounds will probably be characterized by a high or moderate mobility in soil.
|Journal series||Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, e-ISSN 1879-1298, (N/A 100 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.50|
|Keywords in English||Sorption, mobility, batch test, column test, percolation test, pharmaceuticals|
|ASJC Classification||; ;|
|Score||= 100.0, 07-08-2020, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||= 0.000; = 1.000; : 2019 = 1.635; : 2018 = 5.108 (2) - 2018=5.089 (5)|
|Citation count*||2 (2020-08-07)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.