The stringent response of marine bacteria - assessment of (p)ppGpp accumulation upon stress conditions
Klaudia Milewska , Klaudyna Krause , Agnieszka Szalewska-Pałasz
AbstractMicroorganisms are particularly adapted to alterations in their environment. One of the global regulatory mechanisms involved in these adaptations is the stringent response. The unusual nucleotides, guanosine penta and tetraphosphates, (p)ppGpp act as alarmones of this response, heralding nutrient limitation and stressors. Marine bacteria encounter numerous stresses of sparse nutrient supplies and changes in physicochemical conditions. The aim of this work was to assess whether the stress conditions common in marine environment can induce the stringent response and what is a kinetic of this process. The representative bacterial species, Shewanella baltica, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Vibrio harveyi, and Escherichia coli were subjected to a variety of stressors. We analyzed the kinetics of (p)ppGpp synthesis by labeling in vivo nucleotides and analysis by thin layer chromatography. The (p)ppGpp accumulation followed the elevated temperature and amino acid starvation for all bacteria tested. The carbon and nitrogen limitation resulted in the response limited to V. harveyi and S. baltica. The DNA damaging agents induced the (p)ppGpp production in all strains, while osmotic stress did not result in significant alarmone synthesis. The representative marine bacteria species were shown to induce with varying extent the stringent response upon the onset of stress and limitation conditions. Importantly, the in vivo labeling and subsequent separation of the nucleotides by thin layer chromatography serves as a valid method for the analysis of the stringent response and (p)ppGpp accumulation in environmental bacteria.
|Journal series||Journal of Applied Genetics, ISSN 1234-1983, e-ISSN 2190-3883, (N/A 100 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.5|
|Keywords in Polish||(p)ppGpp, odpowiedź ścisła, stres środowiskowy, chromatografia cienkowarstwowa|
|Keywords in English||marine bacteria, (p)ppGpp, stringent response, environmental stress, thin-layer chromatography|
|Score||= 100.0, 14-02-2020, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||: 2018 = 0.689; : 2018 = 1.725 (2) - 2018=1.973 (5)|
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