Marginalised, patronised and instrumentalised: Polish female fans in the ultras' narratives

Dominik Antonowicz , Honorata Jakubowska , Radosław Kossakowski


Since the 1990s there has been a growing number of female supporters following football clubs and there is little doubt that they have recently become an important part of the audience for both football authorities and clubs. The process of football’s feminisation is neither simple nor is it taking place in a social vacuum, and female fans are encountering well-institutionalised football fandom culture, which is deeply entrenched in stadium rituals. This paper offers an empirical study of roles assigned to women in football fandom culture and the way in which this has been done in order reproduce a “traditional” social order on the Polish football stands. In doing so, it examines the grass-roots ultras’ magazine To My Kibice (We are the fans) that belongs to an increasingly popular type of fan magazine, which was developed from popular homemade football fanzines in the 1980s. The analyses provide evidence that female supporters are either marginalised (not being counted as regular fans), patronised or instrumentalised by their male peers. These strategies are visible both in language and in the social contexts in which women on the stands are described.
Author Dominik Antonowicz
Dominik Antonowicz,,
, Honorata Jakubowska
Honorata Jakubowska,,
, Radosław Kossakowski (FSS/IPSJ/DSEL)
Radosław Kossakowski,,
- Division of the Sociology of Everyday Life
Journal seriesInternational Review for the Sociology of Sport, ISSN 1012-6902, (N/A 140 pkt)
Issue year2020
Publication size in sheets0.80
Keywords in Englishfemale fandom, football, football fandom, male hegemony, Poland, ultras
ASJC Classification3301 Social Sciences (miscellaneous); 3312 Sociology and Political Science
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)140
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 140.0, 04-02-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 0.000; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 1.456; WoS Impact Factor: 2017 = 1.914 (2) - 2017=2.223 (5)
Citation count*5 (2020-07-09)
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
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