A retrospective investigation into the occurrence and human exposure to polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs through cod liver products (1972-2017)

Jerzy Falandysz , Frankie Smith , Sean Panton , Alwyn R. Fernandes


A retrospective analysis of a number of historical medicinal grade cod liver oil samples produced in Northern Europe revealed relatively high contamination levels of PCNs, PCDD/Fs and PCBs. The total toxic equivalence (TEQ) associated with PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs and PCNs was in the range 95e427 pg g-1 for Baltic cod liver oils and from 70 to 148 pg g-1 for oils sourced from the North Atlantic. The corresponding range for canned cod liver products (Baltic Sea) sampled in 2017 ranged from 52 to 104 pg g-1 fat (33e34 pg g-1 ww). The contribution from PCBs to the overall TEQ toxicity was around 3e6-fold higher than from PCDD/Fs and ranged from 24 to 318 pg TEQ g-1ww. The estimated summed TEQ intakes of PCDD/Fs, dl- PCBs and dl-PCNs resulting from the consumption of the daily recommended doses was highest for the Baltic cod liver oils ranging from 16 to 293 pg kg-1 body mass (bm) day-1 for an adult, 20e183 pg kg-1 bm day-1 for a teenager and 15e131 pg kg-1 bm day-1 for a child. The contribution to daily adult TEQ intake from PCNs alone, although relatively small is estimated to contribute up to 5-fold above the recent EFSA proposed TWI of 2 pg kg-1 bm. The results indicate that although currently produced fish oils may undergo rigorous purification procedures and show low contaminant levels, cod livers sourced from the Baltic and consumed locally, continue to contribute substantially to the dietary intake of these contaminants.
Author Jerzy Falandysz (FCh / DEChR / PTiOR)
Jerzy Falandysz,,
- Pracownia Toksykologii i Ochrony Radiologicznej
, Frankie Smith - [Fera Science Ltd]
Frankie Smith,,
, Sean Panton - [Fera Science Ltd]
Sean Panton,,
, Alwyn R. Fernandes - [University of East Anglia]
Alwyn R. Fernandes,,
Journal seriesChemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, (N/A 100 pkt)
Issue year2019
Publication size in sheets0.5
Keywords in EnglishDietary exposure, tolerable intake, toxic equivalence, maximum limits, fish oil
ASJC Classification2700 General Medicine; 1600 General Chemistry; 2304 Environmental Chemistry
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)100
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 100.0, 22-05-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators Scopus Citations = 8; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 1.54; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 5.108 (2) - 2018=5.089 (5)
Citation count*8 (2020-05-18)
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