The ILs-assisted electrochemical synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes: the effect of ionic liquids on morphology and photoactivity

Paweł Mazierski , J. Łuczak , W. Lisowski , M. J. Winiarski , T. Klimczuk , Adriana Zaleska-Medynska


Facile and environmentally benign one-step titanium anodization method for TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) formation in a presence of ionic liquids (ILs) was proposed. Influence of the IL structure and its content in ethylene glycol electrolyte on morphology, surface properties and photoactivity of the TiO2 NTs was investigated. Possible interactions between IL and TiO2 NTs as well as the mechanism of NTs formation during anodic oxidation process were proposed. The outer diameter, wall thickness, and length of the IL-NTs were found to be proportionally related with increasing length of the hydrocarbon chain in the imidazolium cation of the IL (from 2 to 8), IL content, anodization potential and water content up to 10 vol.%. Moreover, for the first time, the effect of the IL’s structure on the UV–vis and Vis light-induced photoactivity of the IL-TiO2 NTs was presented, and the active species (OH and O2− radicals) involved in the photocatalytic reaction of phenol degradation were determined. The sample that exhibited the highest photoactivity under Vis irradiation (0.63 μmol dm−3 min−1) and greatest amounts of generated OH was TiO2 NTs prepared at anodization potential 90 V in the electrolyte containing 0.1 mol of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [OMIM][BF4] (represented by F− content) and 10 vol.% of water. Phenol degradation rate remained at level about 1.50 and 0.42 μmol dm−3 min−1 after 60 min of UV–vis and Vis irradiation after four cycles in the presence of [OMIM][BF4] and thus obtained IL-NTs exhibited photostability. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions, is step economical and provides one-dimensional nanostructures that meet the specifications for use in diverse photocatalytic applications.
Author Paweł Mazierski (FCh / DET / LPh)
Paweł Mazierski ,,
- Laboratory of Photocatalysis
, J. Łuczak
J. Łuczak,,
, W. Lisowski
W. Lisowski,,
, M. J. Winiarski
M. J. Winiarski,,
, T. Klimczuk
T. Klimczuk,,
, Adriana Zaleska-Medynska (FCh / DET / LPh)
Adriana Zaleska-Medynska,,
- Laboratory of Photocatalysis
Other language title versions
Journal seriesApplied Catalysis B: Environmental, ISSN 0926-3373, (A 45 pkt)
Issue year2017
Publication size in sheets0.65
Keywords in EnglishTiO2 nanotubes, ionic liquid, electrochemical method, phenol degradation, visible light photoactivity, nitrogen and boron doping
ASJC Classification1508 Process Chemistry and Technology; 2300 General Environmental Science; 1503 Catalysis
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)45
ScoreMinisterial score = 45.0, 01-04-2019, ArticleFromJournal
Ministerial score (2013-2016) = 45.0, 01-04-2019, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 8; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 2.12; WoS Impact Factor: 2017 = 11.698 (2) - 2017=10.212 (5)
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.