Submarine groundwater discharge as a source of pharmaceutical and caffeine residues in coastal ecosystem: Bay of Puck, southern Baltic Sea case study

Beata Szymczycha , Marta Borecka , Anna Białk-Bielińska , Grzegorz Siedlewicz , Ksenia Pazdro


Even though the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the water environment is thought to be a potential problem for human health and aquatic organisms, the level of knowledge of their sources and presence in the marine ecosystem is still insufficient. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the emergence of sixteen pharmaceuticals and caffeine in groundwater, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), rivers and coastal seawater in the southern Baltic Sea. It has been recognized that chemical substances load associated with SGD can affect coastal ecosystems equally or even greater than surface runoff. Hence, the Bay of Puck, which is an active groundwater discharge area, has been chosen as a model study site to assess the preliminary risk of pharmaceutical and caffeine residues supply in coastal ecosystem. A special focus was placed on tracing the possible sources of pollution for groundwater and SGD based on the composition of collected samples. Five pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen and diclofenac) and caffeine were detected in varying concentrations from below the detection limit to 1528.2 ng L−1. Caffeine and diclofenac were the most widespread compounds. Groundwater was mostly enriched in the analysed compounds and consequently SGD has been recognized as an important source of identified pharmaceutical and caffeine residues to the Bay of Puck. A predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) was determined in order to perform an environmental risk assessment of five pharmaceuticals and caffeine detected in water samples. Finally, future challenges and potential amendments in monitoring strategies are discussed.
Author Beata Szymczycha - [Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences]
Beata Szymczycha,,
- Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences
, Marta Borecka (FCh / DEA / LChER)
Marta Borecka,,
- Laboratory of Chemical Environmental Risks
, Anna Białk-Bielińska (FCh / DEA / LChER)
Anna Białk-Bielińska,,
- Laboratory of Chemical Environmental Risks
, Grzegorz Siedlewicz - [Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences]
Grzegorz Siedlewicz,,
- Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences
, Ksenia Pazdro - [Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences]
Ksenia Pazdro,,
- Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Journal seriesScience of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, e-ISSN 1879-1026, (N/A 200 pkt)
Issue year2020
Publication size in sheets0.3
Article number136522
Keywords in Polishrzeki, wysięk wód gruntowych do morza, zanieczyszczenia środowiska, ładunki, ocena ryzyka
Keywords in Englishrivers, submarine groundwater discharge, emerging contaminants, loads, risk assessment
ASJC Classification2304 Environmental Chemistry; 2305 Environmental Engineering; 2310 Pollution; 2311 Waste Management and Disposal
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)200
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 200.0, 15-05-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 0; Scopus Citations = 0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 1.849; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 5.589 (2) - 2018=5.727 (5)
Citation count*
Share Share

Get link to the record

* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
Are you sure?