PBDEs in cod (Gadus morhua) liver products (1972-2017): occurrence and human exposure

Jerzy Falandysz , Frankie Smith , Zoe Steel , Alwyn R. Fernandes


PBDEs occur in a range of commonly consumed foods but there is very little current information on occurrence in dietary supplements such as cod liver oil or cod livers used as food. This study retrospectively investigated a number of these products, sourced from the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic, historically dating from 1972 to 2017. For the sum of 17 measured PBDEs (SPBDE), the concentrations ranged from 9.9 to 415 ng g-1 for the oils and from 10.5 to 13 ng g-1 for canned liver products. Concentrations in the oils were highest during the period from 1993 to 2001. For all samples, BDE-47 was the dominant congener with a maximum detected concentration of 308 ng g-1 in a Baltic cod liver oil from 1993. Human exposure to PBDEs from recommended doses were estimated for adults, teenagers and children. Depending on the age group, BDE-47 intakes ranged from 1.3 to 211.5 ng kg-1 bm day-1 (Baltic Sea), 2.9e12.7 ng kg-1 bm day-1 (Atlantic, Norway) and 1.1e4.8 ng kg-1 bm day-1 (Atlantic, Iceland). Intakes for the other dominant congeners, BDE-49, BDE-99 and BDE-100, were relatively low. The intake estimates of SPBDE were highest for Baltic cod liver oils ranging from 2.2 to 284.8 ng kg-1 bm day-1 for adults, 2.8e178 ng kg-1 bm day-1 for teenagers and 2.0e127.8 ng kg-1 bm day-1 for a child. Estimated weekly intake of SPBDE from canned cod liver was highest for adults, ranging from 17.6 to 25.1 ng kg-1 bm.
Author Jerzy Falandysz (FCh / DEChR / PTiOR)
Jerzy Falandysz,,
- Pracownia Toksykologii i Ochrony Radiologicznej
, Frankie Smith - [Fera Science Ltd]
Frankie Smith,,
, Zoe Steel - [Fera Science Ltd]
Zoe Steel,,
, Alwyn R. Fernandes - [University of East Anglia]
Alwyn R. Fernandes,,
Journal seriesChemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, (N/A 100 pkt)
Issue year2019
Publication size in sheets0.5
Keywords in EnglishDietary exposure, tolerable intake, brominated flame retardants, maximum limits, fish oil
ASJC Classification2700 General Medicine; 1600 General Chemistry; 2304 Environmental Chemistry
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)100
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 100.0, 10-01-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators Scopus Citations = 1; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 1.54; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 5.108 (2) - 2018=5.089 (5)
Citation count*1 (2020-01-10)
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
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