Brood care in a 100-million-year-old scale insect

Bo Wang , Fangyuan Xia , Torsten Wappler , Ewa Simon , Haichun Zhang , Edmund A. Jarzembowski , Jacek Szwedo


Behavior of extinct organisms can be inferred only indirectly, but occasionally rare fossils document particular behaviors directly. Brood care, a remarkable behavior promoting the survival of the next generation, has evolved independently numerous times among animals including insects. However, fossil evidence of such a complex behavior is exceptionally scarce. Here, we report an ensign scale insect (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), Wathondara kotejai gen. et sp. nov., from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, which preserves eggs within a wax ovisac, and several freshly hatched nymphs. The new fossil is the only Mesozoic record of an adult female scale insect. More importantly, our finding represents the earliest unequivocal direct evidence of brood care in the insect fossil record and demonstrates a remarkably conserved egg-brooding reproductive strategy within scale insects in stasis for nearly 100 million years.
Author Bo Wang
Bo Wang,,
, Fangyuan Xia
Fangyuan Xia,,
, Torsten Wappler
Torsten Wappler,,
, Ewa Simon
Ewa Simon,,
, Haichun Zhang
Haichun Zhang,,
, Edmund A. Jarzembowski
Edmund A. Jarzembowski,,
, Jacek Szwedo (FB / DIZP)
Jacek Szwedo,,
- Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Parasitology
Journal serieseLife, ISSN 2050-084X, (A 45 pkt)
Issue year2015
Publication size in sheets0.5
ASJC Classification2400 General Immunology and Microbiology; 1300 General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology; 2700 General Medicine; 2800 General Neuroscience
Languageen angielski
LicenseJournal (articles only); published final; Uznanie Autorstwa (CC-BY); with publication
Score (nominal)45
ScoreMinisterial score = 45.0, 01-10-2019, ArticleFromJournal
Ministerial score (2013-2016) = 45.0, 01-10-2019, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 26; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2015 = 1.654; WoS Impact Factor: 2015 = 8.282 (2) - 2015=8.512 (5)
Citation count*43 (2020-05-11)
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
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