Effect of exercise on fatty acid metabolism and adipokine secretion in adipose tissue

Adriana Mika , Filippo Macaluso , Rosario Barone , Valentina Di Felice , Tomasz Śledziński

Abstract

Increased physical activity is an optimal way to maintain a good health. During exercise, triacylglycerols, an energy reservoir in adipose tissue, are hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FAs) which are then released to the circulation, providing a fuel for working muscles. Thus, regular physical activity leads to a reduction of adipose tissue mass and improves metabolism. However, the reduction of lipid reservoir is also associated with many other interesting changes in adipose tissue FA metabolism. For example, a prolonged exercise contributes to a decrease in lipoprotein lipase activity and resultant reduction of FA uptake. This results in the improvement of mitochondrial function and upregulation of enzymes involved in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The exercise-induced changes in adipocyte metabolism are associated with modifications of FA composition. The modifications are adipose tissue depot-specific and follow different patterns in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Moreover, exercise affects adipokine release from adipose tissue, and thus, may mitigate inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity. Another consequence of exercise is the recently described phenomenon of adipose tissue “beiging,” i.e., a switch from energy-storing white adipocyte phenotype to thermogenic FA oxidizing beige adipocytes. This process is regulated by myokines released during the exercise. In this review, we summarize published evidence for the exercise-related changes in FA metabolism and adipokine release in adipose tissue, and their potential contribution to beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic effects of physical activity.
Author Adriana Mika (FCh / DEA / LChER)
Adriana Mika,,
- Laboratory of Chemical Environmental Risks
, Filippo Macaluso
Filippo Macaluso,,
-
, Rosario Barone
Rosario Barone,,
-
, Valentina Di Felice
Valentina Di Felice,,
-
, Tomasz Śledziński
Tomasz Śledziński,,
-
Journal seriesFrontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, (N/A 100 pkt)
Issue year2019
Vol10
Pages1-7
Publication size in sheets0.5
Keywords in EnglishExercise, adipose tissue, fatty acid, adipokine, myokine, adipose tissue beiging
ASJC Classification2737 Physiology (medical); 1314 Physiology
DOIDOI:10.3389/fphys.2019.00026
URL https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00026
Languageen angielski
LicenseJournal (articles only); published final; Uznanie Autorstwa (CC-BY); with publication
Score (nominal)100
ScoreMinisterial score = 100.0, 30-09-2019, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 1.157; WoS Impact Factor: 2017 = 3.394 (2) - 2017=4.18 (5)
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
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