Changes in the epiphytic lichen biota of Białowieża Primeval Forest are not explained by climate warming
Anna Łubek , Martin Kukwa , Bogdan Jaroszewicz , Patryk Czortek
AbstractEpiphytic lichens are sensitive bioindicators responding to climate change and atmospheric pollutants. Climate warming changes in lichen biota have been reported from Western and Central Europe; therefore, similar trends in the biota of the close-to-natural forests of Eastern Europe were expected. In both examinations (1987–1989 and 2015–2016) of 144 permanent plots the same field method was used. The following functional epiphyte groups were distinguished: climate warming indicators (VDI species and species containing Trentepohlia algae) and Wirth's ecological indicators (T – temperature, N – eutrophication, R – reaction, M – moisture). PCA ordination for exploring species composition changes, species richness and diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) in different forest types was used. When compared with the earlier survey, a higher plot species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and proportion of more nitrogen-demanding lichens, and lower proportions of warm-demanding and high-acidity tolerant lichens were found. No change in the epiphyte biota composition influenced by the decreasing atmospheric precipitation was detected. The species richness and Shannon-Wiener index of climate warming indicators did not show a significant change. Although the share and frequency of epiphytic lichen species and their functional groups changed over a 25-year period, no relationship was found to be related to climate warming: indicators of global warming showed no significant change in frequency, while those with higher value of T even decreased frequency. The changes suggest a connection with eutrophication (increase in frequency of species with higher value of N) and a decrease in sulphur deposition (increase in frequency of species with higher value of R).
|Journal series||Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, (A 40 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.5|
|Keywords in English||biodiversity, climate change, ecological indicators, eutrophication, old-growth, Trentepohlia|
|Score|| = 40.0, ArticleFromJournal|
= 40.0, ArticleFromJournal
|Publication indicators||: 2017 = 4.61 (2) - 2017=4.984 (5)|
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