Revision of Gyrodactylus salaris phylogeny inspired by new evidence for Eemian crossing between lineages living on grayling in Baltic and White sea basins

Agata Mieszkowska , Marcin Górniak , Agata Jurczak-Kurek , Marek Ziętara

Abstract

In this research, grayling-specific Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 isolates from Baltic Sea basin were collected in Sweden for the first time. Samples were obtained in three drainage systems: Kalixälven (River Kaitum), Ljungan (River Sölvbacka strömmar), and Umeälven (River Juktån). Three molecular markers were analysed: nuclear ITS rDNA (Internal Transcribed Spacer) and ADNAM1 (Anonymous DNA Marker 1), and mitochondrial cox1 gene. As a result, four new mitochondrial haplotypes were identified (III-C1tt, III-C1ttht, IX-A1tt and X-A1tt). The ADNAM1 analyses resulted in revealing two new alleles (WS4 and BS9) and two new genotypes (T6 and T7). T7 seems to be an indicator of ancient crossing between Baltic and White Sea lineages of the parasite which happened during a first 3000-year period of Eemian interglacial about 130,000 years ago in the connection between Baltic and White Sea. Molecular clock estimates were adjusted, revealing the mean substitution rate and the divergence rate among branches of 3.6% (95% HPD: 2.2%–5.2%) and 7.2% per million years, respectively. As a result,cox1 phylogeny rooted with the introgressed haplotypes has been revised and altered in accordance to new data, revealing fourteen equidistant lineages five of which have been excluded from the study. Based on the new phylogenetic approach, including the molecular clock, this work suggests an overall revision of G.salaris phylogeny and attempts at precisely drawing the division of lineages within this polytypic species as well as proposes unification in nomenclature for its strains.
Author Agata Mieszkowska KEM
Agata Mieszkowska,,
- Department of Molecular Evolution
, Marcin Górniak KEM
Marcin Górniak,,
- Department of Molecular Evolution
, Agata Jurczak-Kurek KEM
Agata Jurczak-Kurek,,
- Department of Molecular Evolution
, Marek Ziętara KEM
Marek Ziętara,,
- Department of Molecular Evolution
Journal seriesPeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359
Issue year2018
Vol6
Pages1-24
Publication size in sheets1.15
Keywords in EnglishGyrodactylus salaris phylogeny, molecular clock, Gyrodactylosis
DOIDOI:10.7717/peerj.5167
URL https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5167
Languageen angielski
LicenseJournal (articles only); published final; Uznanie Autorstwa (CC-BY); with publication
Score (nominal)35
ScoreMinisterial score = 35.0, 12-07-2018, ArticleFromJournal
Ministerial score (2013-2016) = 35.0, 12-07-2018, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Impact Factor: 2016 = 2.177 (2) - 2016=2.354 (5)
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