The leaching behavior of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide from soil in the presence of co-contaminant: mixture sorption approach
Katarzyna Mioduszewska , Joanna Maszkowska , Anna Białk-Bielińska , Oliver Krüger , Ute Kalbe , Beata Liberek , Paulina Łukaszewicz , Piotr Stepnowski
AbstractAnticancer drugs (ACDs) exhibit high biological activity, they are cytotoxic, genotoxic, and are constantly released into the environment as a result of incomplete metabolism. Consequently they pose a serious threat to the environment and human health due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or reproductive toxicity properties. Knowledge of their bioavailability, including their sorption to soils and their impact on the soil–groundwater pathway, is crucial for their risk assessment. Laboratory batch and column leaching tests are important tools for determining the release potential of contaminants from soil or waste material. Batch and column tests were carried out with soils differing in physicochemical properties, each spiked with cyclophosphamide (CK) or ifosfamide (IF). Moreover, due to the fact that environmental pollutants may occur as coexisting compounds in the soil the mobility evaluation for ACDs in the mixture with metoprolol (MET; β-blocker) as a co-contaminant was performed. In order to assess appropriateness, the batch and column tests were compared. The release depended on the properties of both the soil and the presence of co-contaminants. The faster release was observed for coarse-grained soil with the smallest organic matter content (MS soil: 90% decrease in concentration until liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) of 0.3 L kg− 1 for all tests' layout) than for loamy sand (LS soil: 90% decrease in concentration until ratio L/S of 0.75 L kg− 1). ACDs are highly mobile in soil systems. Furthermore, the decrease of mobility of ifosfamide was observed with the presence of a co-contaminant (metoprolol) in both of the soils (in MS soil a decrease of 29%; in LS soil a decrease of 26%). The mobility of cyclophosphamide does not depend on the presence of a contaminant for MS soil, but also exhibits a decrease of 21% in LS soil.
|Journal series||Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, (A 40 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.5|
|Keywords in English||sorption, anticancer drugs, beta-blocker, metoprolol|
|Score|| = 40.0, ArticleFromJournal|
= 40.0, ArticleFromJournal
|Publication indicators||= 0; = 0; : 2016 = 4.9 (2) - 2016=5.102 (5)|
|Citation count*||1 (2019-10-16)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.