Integrative description of bisexual Paramacrobiotus experimentalis sp. nov. (Macrobiotidae) from republic of Madagascar (Africa) with microbiome analysis
Łukasz Kaczmarek , Milena Roszkowska , Izabela Poprawa , Kamil Janelt , Hanna Kmita , Magdalena Gawlak , Edyta Fiałkowska , Monika Mioduchowska
AbstractIn a moss samples collected on Madagascar two populations of Paramacrobiotus experimentalis sp. nov. were found. Paramacrobiotus experimentalis sp. nov. with the presence of a microplacoid and areolatus type of eggs is similar to Pam. danielae, Pam. garynahi, Pam. hapukuensis, Pam. peteri, Pam. rioplatensis and Pam. savai, but it differs from them by some morphological and morphometric characters of the eggs. The p-distance between two COI haplotypes of Pam. experimentalis sp. nov. was 0.17%. In turn, the ranges of uncorrected genetic p-distances of all Paramacrobiotus species available in GenBank was from 18.27% (for Pam. lachowskae) to 25.26% (for Pam. arduus) with an average distance of 20.67%. We also found that Pam. experimentalis sp. nov. is bisexual. This observation was congruent on three levels: (i) morphological – specimen size dimorphism; (ii) structural (primary sexual characteristics) – females have an unpaired ovary while males have an unpaired testis and (iii) molecular – heterozygous and homozygous strains of the ITS-2 marker. Although symbiotic associations of hosts with bacteria (including endosymbiotic bacteria) are common in nature and these interactions exert various effects on the evolution, biology and reproductive ecology of hosts, there is still very little information on the bacterial community associated with tardigrades. To fill this gap and characterise the bacterial community of Pam. experimentalis sp. nov. populations and microbiome of its microhabitat, high throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable regions in the bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragment was performed. The obtained 16S rRNA gene sequences ranged from 92,665 to 131,163. In total, 135 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified across the rarefied dataset. Overall, both Pam. experimentalis sp. nov. populations were dominated by OTUs ascribed to the phylum Proteobacteria (89–92%) and Firmicutes (6–7%). In the case of samples from tardigrades’ laboratory habitat, the most abundant bacterial phylum was Proteobacteria (51–90%) and Bacteroides (9–48%). In all compared microbiome profiles, only 16 of 137 OTUs were shared. We found also significant differences in beta diversity between the partly species-specific microbiome of Pam. experimentalis sp. nov. and its culturing environment. Two OTUs belonging to a putative bacterial endosymbiont were identified – Rickettsiales and Polynucleobacter. We also demonstrated that each bacterial community was rich in genes involved in membrane transport, amino acid metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism.
|Journal series||Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, e-ISSN 1095-9513, (N/A 140 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.30|
|Keywords in English||Tardigrada, Eutardigrada, taxonomy, gonochorism, microbiome, operational taxonomic units|
|ASJC Classification||; ;|
|Score||= 140.0, 16-04-2020, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||: 2017 = 1.900; : 2018 = 3.992 (2) - 2018=4.383 (5)|
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